International Journal of Cultural Inheritance & Social Sciences https://ijciss.com/index.php/j1 IJMRA Publications en-US International Journal of Cultural Inheritance & Social Sciences 2632-7597 THE FATIMID MOSQUE IN SAINT CATHERINE'S MONASTERY (ARCHAEOLOGICAL STUDY) https://ijciss.com/index.php/j1/article/view/42 <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The religious significance of Sinai is due to the command of Moses, perhaps, this important religious position of Sinai made it a refuge for hermits, devotees, fleeing Roman persecution, and the new religion in which they found a dangerous competitor.</p> <p>Among the places where hermits and monks resided are: Mount Moses, Wadi Ferran and Wadi al-Hamam, north of the city of At-Tur, where there is safety from the brutality of the Roman soldiers, and there are fertile areas, where water springs are needed for their cultivation, as well as their residence near the holy areas mentioned in the Bible. Christian hermits began residing in Sinai since the middle of the third century AD, and then it became a place of pilgrimage since the fourth century AD.</p> <p>In (372-374 AD) a Spanish noblewoman visited the monks there, and established two churches on Mount Sinai and a third on the side of the bush. At the beginning of the sixth century AD, there were several monasteries and churches in the Wadi Ferran region, and the Byzantine Emperor Justinian (527-566 AD) built a fortress to prevent attacks from them The Bedouins built the current monastery in this place, considering it a holy place.</p> <p>The research deals with two axes: the first is the history of St. Catherine's Monastery and the stages of construction, and the second deals with the architectural description of the monastery and its architectural elements</p> Mahmoud Ahmed Darwish Copyright (c) 2022 © 2022 by The Authors. Creative Commons License This journal is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. https://creativecommons.org/liceses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-03-31 2022-03-31 4 7 1 11 MUTTRAH CASTLE IN MUSCAT, SULTANATE OF OMAN, AN ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND ARCHITECTURAL STUDY https://ijciss.com/index.php/j1/article/view/43 <p>This study deals with the famous fortress of Muttrah, which is located in the Governorate of Muscat in the State of the Sultanate of Oman.</p> <p>It represents a model for military fortifications in the Arabian Gulf region. The research reviews the Muttrah Castle in terms of its architectural details, by shedding light on all the different components of the castle in terms of its architectural planning and defensive elements, with the aim of highlighting the value of this castle and showing its vital role on the shores of the Sea of ​​Oman in the Wilayat of Muttrah.</p> <p>The research deals with clarifying the architectural plan of Muttrah Castle, in an attempt to prove the correctness of the origin of its architectural planning, and to return its architectural identity to its Arab origins, which actually reflect the experience and effectiveness of the Omani man in preserving his capabilities and strengthening his internal front in the face of tyrants. The castle was a security guard at times Important in Omani history, which is full of changes and important historical events.</p> <p>The research deals with three axes, including: the architectural description of the castle, the defensive architectural elements, and the architectural planning of the castle and its architectural roots.</p> Mahmoud Mohamed Sadiq Copyright (c) 2022 © 2022 by The Authors. Creative Commons License This journal is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. https://creativecommons.org/liceses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-03-31 2022-03-31 4 7 12 23 THE STABILITY OF THE RULE OF MOHAMED ALI AFTER THE FAILURE OF THE ENGLISH CAMPAIGN IN 1807, A HISTORICAL AND ANALYTICAL STUDY https://ijciss.com/index.php/j1/article/view/44 <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>There is no doubt that the political conditions that Egypt experienced after the failure and withdrawal of the French campaign, at a time when the English set their feet after their participation in the expulsion of the French, as well as the conflicts between the poles of Egyptian society, led by the Mamluks and the Turks, and then the conflict began to take new directions to impose complete control over Egypt and its complete submission to one of the political forces present on the ground, as the English were preparing for the continuation of residence in Egypt as an alternative to the French who contributed to forcing them to withdraw and not for the sake of the Egyptians,</p> <p>Mohamed Ali was worthy to prove his ability to manage the struggle to gain power and his multiple maneuvers to deepen the animosity and disharmony between the contenders for power, as he did with the Mamluks and then with Khorshid Pasha at a later stage, especially as he was adept at investing the victory over the English in the Rosetta battle in his favour.</p> Mahmoud Ahmed Darwish Copyright (c) 2022 © 2022 by The Authors. Creative Commons License This journal is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. https://creativecommons.org/liceses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-03-31 2022-03-31 4 7 24 45 ARCHITECTURAL PLANNING IN CASTLES AND FORTRESSES DURING THE RAMESSIDE ERA (1292-1077 BC), AN ANALYTICAL AND COMPARATIVE STUDY https://ijciss.com/index.php/j1/article/view/45 <p>The research deals with Architectural planning in castles and fortresses during the Ramesside era (1292-1077 BC), an analytical and comparative study, and consists of several attempts, including:</p> <p>First: The royal palaces: including the palaces of the eighteenth dynasty, represented by the palace of King Ay and Horemheb, the palaces of the nineteenth dynasty and the Ramesses era, represented by four palaces: the palace of King Ramses II in the Ramesseum temple in Thebes, the palace of King Merneptah in Memphis, and the palace of King Ramses III in MedinetHabu, and the second palace of King Ramses III in Memphis, where we find that this plan for the Palace of Merneptah and the palaces of Ramses III is the model that followed the planning of castles later.</p> Nancy Hosam Mahmoud Copyright (c) 2022 © 2022 by The Authors. Creative Commons License This journal is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. https://creativecommons.org/liceses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-03-31 2022-03-31 4 7 46 64 METHODOLOGY OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH AND ITS MODERN DIVISIONS ACCORDING TO WITHNEY, MARQUIS, GOOD AND SCATES, AND VAN DALEN https://ijciss.com/index.php/j1/article/view/46 <p>This research deals with an important aspect of scientific research, which is the methodology that scientific research follows, to correct the error that most researchers make who confuse methodology and methodology,the descriptive, analytical and comparative approach and the branches that these curricula include, such as the historical and experimental method and others.</p> <p>The research is divided into several axes of the research methodology, which are:</p> <ol> <li>The steps and types of thinking, which include: Evolutionary thinking, Critical thinking, Reflective and imitation thinking, Mysterious thinking, Skeptical thinking, Exaggerated thinking Think too much, Surface thinking, Causal analytical thinking, Reflexive thinking, Partial thinking, Total aggregate thinking.</li> <li>Scientific research methods, including: Inductive study, Exploratory search.</li> <li>Steps for collecting research material and conducting research, including: stages of collecting scientific material, research formulation and form, research formulation components, and form.</li> <li>Defining the concept of the scientific method</li> <li>As for the approved types of scientific research methods, they include: the experimental method, the survey method, and the historical method. Modern divisions of scientific research methods include those of: Withney, the Marquis, Good and Scates, and Van Dalen.</li> <li>Accredited scientific research methods.</li> </ol> Mahmoud Ahmed Darwish Copyright (c) 2022 © 2022 by The Authors. Creative Commons License This journal is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. https://creativecommons.org/liceses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-03-31 2022-03-31 4 7 65 85 THE FATIMID MOSQUE IN SAINT CATHERINE'S MONASTERY (ARCHAEOLOGICAL STUDY) https://ijciss.com/index.php/j1/article/view/48 <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The religious significance of Sinai is due to the command of Moses, perhaps, this important religious position of Sinai made it a refuge for hermits, devotees, fleeing Roman persecution, and the new religion in which they found a dangerous competitor.</p> <p>Among the places where hermits and monks resided are: Mount Moses, Wadi Ferran and Wadi al-Hamam, north of the city of At-Tur, where there is safety from the brutality of the Roman soldiers, and there are fertile areas, where water springs are needed for their cultivation, as well as their residence near the holy areas mentioned in the Bible. Christian hermits began residing in Sinai since the middle of the third century AD, and then it became a place of pilgrimage since the fourth century AD.</p> <p>In (372-374 AD) a Spanish noblewoman visited the monks there, and established two churches on Mount Sinai and a third on the side of the bush. At the beginning of the sixth century AD, there were several monasteries and churches in the Wadi Ferran region, and the Byzantine Emperor Justinian (527-566 AD) built a fortress to prevent attacks from them The Bedouins built the current monastery in this place, considering it a holy place.</p> <p>The research deals with two axes: the first is the history of St. Catherine's Monastery and the stages of construction, and the second deals with the architectural description of the monastery and its architectural elements.</p> Mahmoud Ahmed Darwish Copyright (c) 2022 © 2022 by The Authors. Creative Commons License This journal is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. https://creativecommons.org/liceses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-03-24 2022-03-24 4 7 1 11 MUTTRAH CASTLE IN MUSCAT, SULTANATE OF OMAN, AN ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND ARCHITECTURAL STUDY https://ijciss.com/index.php/j1/article/view/49 <p>This study deals with the famous fortress of Muttrah, which is located in the Governorate of Muscat in the State of the Sultanate of Oman.</p> <p>It represents a model for military fortifications in the Arabian Gulf region. The research reviews the Muttrah Castle in terms of its architectural details, by shedding light on all the different components of the castle in terms of its architectural planning and defensive elements, with the aim of highlighting the value of this castle and showing its vital role on the shores of the Sea of ​​Oman in the Wilayat of Muttrah.</p> <p>The research deals with clarifying the architectural plan of Muttrah Castle, in an attempt to prove the correctness of the origin of its architectural planning, and to return its architectural identity to its Arab origins, which actually reflect the experience and effectiveness of the Omani man in preserving his capabilities and strengthening his internal front in the face of tyrants. The castle was a security guard at times Important in Omani history, which is full of changes and important historical events.</p> <p>The research deals with three axes, including: the architectural description of the castle, the defensive architectural elements, and the architectural planning of the castle and its architectural roots.</p> Mahmoud Mohamed Sadiq Copyright (c) 2022 © 2022 by The Authors. Creative Commons License This journal is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. https://creativecommons.org/liceses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-03-24 2022-03-24 4 7 12 23 THE STABILITY OF THE RULE OF MOHAMED ALI AFTER THE FAILURE OF THE ENGLISH CAMPAIGN IN 1807, A HISTORICAL AND ANALYTICAL STUDY https://ijciss.com/index.php/j1/article/view/50 <p>There is no doubt that the political conditions that Egypt experienced after the failure and withdrawal of the French campaign, at a time when the English set their feet after their participation in the expulsion of the French, as well as the conflicts between the poles of Egyptian society, led by the Mamluks and the Turks, and then the conflict began to take new directions to impose complete control over Egypt and its complete submission to one of the political forces present on the ground, as the English were preparing for the continuation of residence in Egypt as an alternative to the French who contributed to forcing them to withdraw and not for the sake of the Egyptians,</p> <p>Mohamed Ali was worthy to prove his ability to manage the struggle to gain power and his multiple maneuvers to deepen the animosity and disharmony between the contenders for power, as he did with the Mamluks and then with Khorshid Pasha at a later stage, especially as he was adept at investing the victory over the English in the Rosetta battle in his favour.</p> <p>This research deals with five axes, including: the consolidation of the state and the stability of government (1807-1811), getting rid of the popular leadership, suppressing the influence of the sheikhs, the position of Mohamed Ali towards the Mamluks, the establishment of a modern regular military force, and the establishment of fortresses and fortifications.</p> Mahmoud Ahmed Darwish Copyright (c) 2022 © 2022 by The Authors. Creative Commons License This journal is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. https://creativecommons.org/liceses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-03-24 2022-03-24 4 7 24 45 ARCHITECTURAL PLANNING IN CASTLES AND FORTRESSES DURING THE RAMESSIDE ERA (1292-1077 BC), AN ANALYTICAL AND COMPARATIVE STUDY https://ijciss.com/index.php/j1/article/view/51 <p>The research deals with Architectural planning in castles and fortresses during the Ramesside era (1292-1077 BC), an analytical and comparative study, and consists of several attempts, including:</p> <p>First: The royal palaces: including the palaces of the eighteenth dynasty, represented by the palace of King Ay and Horemheb, the palaces of the nineteenth dynasty and the Ramesses era, represented by four palaces: the palace of King Ramses II in the Ramesseum temple in Thebes, the palace of King Merneptah in Memphis, and the palace of King Ramses III in MedinetHabu, and the second palace of King Ramses III in Memphis, where we find that this plan for the Palace of Merneptah and the palaces of Ramses III is the model that followed the planning of castles later.</p> Nancy Hosam Mahmoud Copyright (c) 2022 © 2022 by The Authors. Creative Commons License This journal is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. https://creativecommons.org/liceses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-03-24 2022-03-24 4 7 46 64 METHODOLOGY OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH AND ITS MODERN DIVISIONS ACCORDING TO WITHNEY, MARQUIS, GOOD AND SCATES, AND VAN DALEN https://ijciss.com/index.php/j1/article/view/52 <p>This research deals with an important aspect of scientific research, which is the methodology that scientific research follows, to correct the error that most researchers make who confuse methodology and methodology,the descriptive, analytical and comparative approach and the branches that these curricula include, such as the historical and experimental method and others.</p> <p>The research is divided into several axes of the research methodology, which are:</p> <ol> <li>The steps and types of thinking, which include: Evolutionary thinking, Critical thinking, Reflective and imitation thinking, Mysterious thinking, Skeptical thinking, Exaggerated thinking Think too much, Surface thinking, Causal analytical thinking, Reflexive thinking, Partial thinking, Total aggregate thinking.</li> <li>Scientific research methods, including: Inductive study, Exploratory search.</li> <li>Steps for collecting research material and conducting research, including: stages of collecting scientific material, research formulation and form, research formulation components, and form.</li> <li>Defining the concept of the scientific method</li> <li>As for the approved types of scientific research methods, they include: the experimental method, the survey method, and the historical method. Modern divisions of scientific research methods include those of: Withney, the Marquis, Good and Scates, and Van Dalen.</li> <li>Accredited scientific research methods.</li> </ol> Mahmoud Ahmed Darwish Copyright (c) 2022 © 2022 by The Authors. Creative Commons License This journal is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. https://creativecommons.org/liceses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-03-24 2022-03-24 4 7 65 85